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First published: 29 January About this book Up-to-date coverage of methods of emulsion polymerization This book provides a comprehensive reference on emulsion polymerization methods,focusing on the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of each process, as well as howthey can be applied to the manufacture of environmentally friendly polymeric materials. Topics covered include: Conventional emulsion polymerization Miniemulsion polymerization Microemulsion polymerization Industrial emulsion polymerization processes primarily the semibatch and continuous reactions systems The role of various colloidal phenomena in emulsion polymerization Important end-use properties of emulsion polymer latex products Information on industrial applications in paints, coatings, adhesives, paper and board, and more This is a hands-on reference for graduate students and professionals in polymerchemistry, chemical engineering, and materials science who are involved in researchon coatings, adhesives, rubber, latex, paints, finishes, and other materials that can becreated using various methods of emulsion polymerization.
Johnson Wax, and Union Carbide during his industrial career. His major research interests involve nucleation, growth, and stability of latex particles during emulsion polymerization. Export Citation s. Typical nonionic surfactants and surface-active, nonionic block copolymers are quite effective in imparting such a steric stabilization effect to colloidal dispersions.
A schematic representation of the steric stabilization mechanism is shown in Figure 1. Considering the space of interaction between two hairy colloidal particles as the control volume, these particles are well separated and there is no overlap of adsorbed polymer layers initially Figure 1. In this case, the adsorbed polymer chain has the maximum number of conformations near the particle surface, and therefore the corresponding entropy is relatively large.
Under these circumstances, no appreciable interactions between the pair of particles can be detected. As a result, the change of entropy i.
Email; Facebook; Twitter; Linked In; Reddit; CiteULike. View Table of Contents for Principles and Applications of Emulsion Polymerization. Up-to-date coverage of methods of emulsion polymerization This book provides a comprehensive reference on emulsion polymerization methods,focusing on the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of each process, as well as how they can be applied to.
Interactions between two hairy colloidal particles: a Two particles with a relatively large distance of separation in the absence of overlap of adsorbed polymer layers and b two particles at close approach in the presence of overlap of adsorbed polymer layers. Figure 1. This implies that this process is not thermodynamically feasible, and repulsive steric interactions are established accordingly to pull the pair of particles apart.
In general, the degree of steric interactions between two hairy particles is governed by the surface polymer concentration, the polymer chain length or the adsorbed polymer layer thickness , and temperature. The primary features of models describing the steric stabilization mechanism include a a strong effect of temperature on the repulsive steric interactions, b a rapidly increased steric interactions with increasing polymer concentration in the adsorbed polymer layer, and c an increased steric interactions with decreasing distance of separation [17, 18, 70, 71].
The addition of a solvent or other ingredient that could cause polymer desorption from the particle surfaces could clearly destabilize a sterically stabilized system. The shear force is linearly proportional to the velocity gradient, the viscosity of the continuous phase, and the square of the colloidal particle size. It is also interesting to note that at constant velocity gradient and viscosity, the mechanical stability of larger colloidal particles is more sensitive to the hydrodynamic force than that of smaller particles. Therefore, the reader is encouraged to become familiar with the most basic concepts of colloid and interface science.
For example, coatings formulated primarily with emulsion polymers are essential to the beauty and protection of many objects such as houses, furniture, leathern products, and packaging materials. It should be noted that colloidal dispersions have De values close to unity, and therefore they can exhibit viscoelastic behavior. It is dependent on the hydrodynamic interactions between the particles and the continuous aqueous phase and interparticle interactions. The viscosity increases exponentially with increasing total solids content of the emulsion polymer, as shown schematically in Figure 1.
High-solids-contents latexes are often comprised of broad particle size distributions, including bimodal systems. In addition, the viscosity of a colloidal dispersion decreases with increasing temperature. Normally, emulsion polymers show a shear-thinning behavior; viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate Figure 1. Johnson Wax. In a capillary tube, surface tension results in a force that tends to collapse the tube. Moreover, the smaller the diameter of the tube, the greater the destruction force.
When the particles are so close to one another, the destruction force is strong enough to overcome the repulsion forces originating from either the electrostatic or steric interaction mechanism striving to push the neighboring particles apart. This then results in decreased viscosity and increased polymer chain mobility with temperature. According to Eq. Finally, the mechanical properties e. Odian, Principles of Polymerization, 2nd ed.
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Elastic scattering is known as Rayleigh scattering and inelastic, as Raman scattering. View Larger Image. More information about ebooks. Print Dyeing Auxiliary. Figure 4 shows TEM images of emulsions with different P-monomer contents. This figure shows that the univariate linear models have a bias at the beginning of the reaction, taking the monomer concentration quantified by head-space gas chromatography GC as reference; even so, the multivariate models do produce good predictions. Stability of Latex Products.
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